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All sample extracts showed good inhibitory activity against the DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 and AE values of the tea sample extracts are summarized in Table 4 , where lower EC50 values or higher AE values suggest higher antioxidant activity.

For the 20 selected tea samples, EC50 was in the range 0. The scavenging efficiency of Huang shan mao feng green tea against the DPPH radical was the strongest; its EC50 and AE values were 0.

Figure 7 shows the respective correlations between the AE values and the content of total catechins and total polyphenols.

In each case, good correlation was observed for total catechins; for total polyphenols. The correlations between AE values and the content of individual catechins in the 20 tea infusions are summarized in Table 5 ; significant positive correlation was observed in each case.

Among the individual catechins in green tea, the EGCG content showed a relatively higher positive correlation with AE values than those of catechin, EC, EGC, and ECG, and the values were significantly different.

In the tests of antioxidant capacity in the 20 samples of tea, as measured by the DPPH method, it was not clear which component played the important role in antioxidant activity.

The recent development of the online HPLC DPPH method was used to our advantage in this study. This method, which is now used widely in the testing of food and agricultural products and in the pharmaceutical industry [ 35 — 37 ], allows the radical-scavenging activity of a single substance to be measured.

Thus, the radical-scavenging activities of the major catechins EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG, and catechin , gallic acid, and caffeine were determined by the online HPLC DPPH screening method.

The chromatograms of the mixed catechin standards and that of a tea sample are shown in Figure 8 , illustrating the excellent baseline separation of EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG, catechin, gallic acid, and caffeine.

The results showed that while caffeine had almost no DPPH-scavenging activity, strong positive correlations were observed for the contents of the respective HPLC-separated catechins and for gallic acid see Figure 9.

For the same reaction time 1. EGCG can be seen as the main contributor to DPPH-scavenging activity in green and oolong teas, while ECG was a significant contributor in black and dark teas.

In general, the DPPH-scavenging activity can be mainly attributed to the esterified catechins EGCG or ECG. Based on the results shown in Figure 10 , these minor contributions are in the range of We conducted a systematic study on the total polyphenol and catechins content, as well as antioxidant activity, in four types of tea green, dark, oolong, and black prepared from Camellia sinensis in China.

The highest content of polyphenols and total catechins was detected in green tea, followed by oolong, black, and dark tea.

There was a positive correlation between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content ,. In general, it appears that the longer-fermented teas have lower total polyphenol content, lower catechins content, and lower antioxidant capacity.

According to our results, green tea in China is of very high quality in terms of antioxidant capacity when compared with the other teas. Results of online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging activity tests of tea samples showed that gallic acid, EGCG, ECG, EC, EGC, and catechin were responsible for the antioxidant capacity of the extracts from tea samples.

Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of tea extracts was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins EGCG or ECG. While consumers will always rely on personal preferences relating to color, taste, and aroma when selecting tea, we believe that the antioxidant capacity should also be considered.

The results of this study should prove useful to any consumers who wish to select tea based on antioxidant capacity.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Fund for Central Universities no.

DL12EA , the National Natural Science Foundation , China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded Project M , and the Postdoctoral Science-Research Developmental Foundation of Heilongjiang Province no.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy.

Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Journal overview. Special Issues. Article Sections On this page Abstract Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Conclusions Acknowledgments References Copyright.

Chunjian Zhao, 1,2 Chunying Li , 1 Shuaihua Liu, 1 and Lei Yang 1 1 Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin , China 2 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing , China.

Academic Editor: Tsutomu Hatano. Received 17 May Accepted 03 Aug Published 28 Aug Abstract Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated.

Introduction Tea consumption has a long history of more than years. Figure 1. Chemical structures of major catechins present in tea.

Table 1. Figure 2. Instrumental setup for the HPLC analysis of radical-scavenging compounds using an online reaction with 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH.

Table 2. The content of total polyphenols, total catechins, and individual catechins in 20 samples from four types of tea. Figure 3. The correlation between total polyphenol and catechin contents.

Figure 4. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC values of different samples in four types of tea. Table 3. Correlation coefficients for correlation of ORAC value and catechins content in different tea infusions.

Figure 5. Correlation analysis of ORAC values against total polyphenols and catechins in tea. Table 4. Figure 6. Percentage inhibition of DPPH radical by tea extract for green teas a , oolong teas b , black teas c , and dark teas d.

Figure 7. Correlation analysis of anti-DPPH efficiency AE values versus total polyphenols and catechins in tea. Table 5. Correlation coefficients between AE and catechins content in different tea infusions.

Figure 8. Figure 9. DPPH-scavenging activities of different catechins. Figure Contributions of gallic acid and catechins in tea to DPPH-scavenging activity.

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Raut SS, Dhobale JA, Sankapal BR SILAR deposited Bi 2 S 3 thin film towards electrochemical supercapacitor. Phys E Low Dimens Syst Nanostruct — J Inorg Organomet Polym — Lu H, Guo Q, Zan F, Xia H Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles anchored on graphene nanosheets with superior electrochemical performance for supercapacitors.

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